", "Help for Christchurch businesses and workers after earthquake", "Painstaking work continues at devastated buildings", "1240 central Christchurch buildings demolished video", "Christchurch earthquake: Heartbreaking messages from buried daughter", "Christchurch quake toll 75, dozens missing", "Christchurch Earthquake: Workers trapped in crushed buildings", "Day 03 field report from the Christchurch 22 Feb 2011 6.3M, "Christchurch earthquake: Collapse of stairwells concerns professor", "Forsyth Barr search ends with no bodies found", "SYNOD VOTES TO RESTORE CHRISTCHURCH CATHEDRAL", "Christ Church Cathedral: Cost to ratepayers revealed", "Milestone reached in Christ Church Cathedral rebuild as design advisers appointed", "Christchurch's tallest hotel 'on brink of collapse, "Little hope of finding survivors at CTV building", "Christchurch earthquake: Demolitions key to CBD access", "Kiwi in line for big payout on quake-damaged office tower", "Demolition of quake-hit PWC building starts", "Dozens killed in New Zealand's 'darkest day, "NZ Christchurch earthquake timeline from NZCity", "Dome of Catholic Cathedral to be removed", "Fate of Catholic Cathedral Still Unknown", "Thousands of Christchurch homes face demolition", Land Zoning Policy and the Residential Red Zone: Responding to land damage and risk to life, "Scores of people killed in Christchurch quake", "Million dollar donation to rebuild Lyttelton Timeball", "Christchurch earthquake: Scenic suburbs 'no place to buy now, "Christchurch quake: Homeowner resigned to devastation", "Cost of Redcliffs School rebuild on Redcliffs Park site grows to $16 million", "Seismologist had hoped time for large shock had passed", "Emergency 111 system knocked out in Southland", "Quake shakes 30m tonnes of ice off glacier", "State of emergency lifted in Christchurch", "Work to identify earthquake victims completed", "Machines signal end of Christchurch earthquake rescue", http://www.police.govt.nz/sites/default/files/publications/christchurch-earthquake-fatalities-locations-map.pdf, "Origins clarified by various NZ Herald victim reports", "Christchurch quake: Emergency Cabinet meeting", "New Zealand Red Cross 2011 Earthquake Appeal", "Christchurch Art Gallery built to highest standard", "Death toll at 75, national emergency declared", "Brownlee to focus solely on quake recovery", "Names of two further victims released in Christchurch Earthquake", "Australian Police contingent to assist local police", "Aussies become NZ cops in quake-hit city", "Police pay tribute to Australian contingent leaving Christchurch", "Aussie police to help stop looting in Christchurch", "Thai DVI team arrives to assist in identifying Christchurch quake victims", "Christchurch earthquake: Search teams leaving no stone unturned", "DPM Teo Offers Assistance in Response to the Earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand", "LA search-rescue heads to site of NZ quake", "LA County Team Preps for Deployment to New Zealand", "World races to aid New Zealand quake rescue", "Japanese search and rescue team races home", "Welsh firefighters join New Zealand earthquake rescue", "Taiwanese rescue team on way to New Zealand", "Christchurch Earthquake: Extra Chinese workers boost foreign aid numbers", "Humanity Greater Than Any Act of Nature", "Christchurch Earthquake – NZ Defence Force – Update 6", "Christchurch Earthquake – NZ Defence Force – Update 8", "Territorial Force swaps trenching tools for shovels", "Christchurch Earthquake – NZ Defence Force – Update 5", "ED staff donated their blood to quake patients", "Patients flock to Australian temporary hospital", "Christchurch earthquake: Latest updates", "LandSAR volunteers join Christchurch relief operation", "Power transformer to be installed in eastern Chch suburbs", "Christchurch earthquake: Power restored to 82 percent of customers", "Default price-quality path annual compliance statement for the year ending 31 March 2012", "65 dead in devastating Christchurch quake", "Christchurch Earthquake: Fire ban in place for Canterbury", "Long wait for some without power, water", "Community Laundry Facilities Set Up Again for Christchurch", "Farmy Army puts away the shovels – for now", "A Job Well Done for Rangiora Earthquake Express", "Prime Minister of Australia – official website", "Strong earthquake strikes Christchurch, New Zealand, killing at least 65", "Pope joins international sympathy for NZ", "Media Advisory: Christchurch thanks Japanese search and rescue", "Statement by the Prime Minister of Canada on the recent earthquake in New Zealand", "N.Z. The commission was chaired by High Court judge Justice Mark Cooper with support from two other Commissioners, engineers Sir Ron Carter and Professor Richard Fenwick. [252], In January 2013 Earthquake Recovery Minister Gerry Brownlee said repairs to damaged homes to date had totalled more than $1 billion. [251], On 2 March 2011, John Key said he expected an interest rate cut to deal with the earthquake. [206], Canterbury University partially reopened on 14 March 2011, with many lectures held in tents and marquees while work was carried out on university buildings. Canada is standing by to offer any possible assistance to New Zealand in responding to this natural disaster. Christchurch City was made up of approximately 145,000 dwellings at the time of the earthquake, with approximately 10,000 of those listed as unoccupied .According to the 2006 census, 7.4% of residents living in Christchurch considered themselves of Maori descent . [7] Due to the injuries sustained some bodies remained unidentified. It is estimated that 10,600 people moved away from Christchurch, with the 1,700 people difference to the population loss explained through some people moving to Christchurch. Its epicentre was 5 km deep, and 10 km southeast of the city centre (). To get some sense of scale, the Christchurch 2011 quake at a 6.3 involved a release of energy equivalent to four Hiroshima atomic bombs. [142] Taiwan sent a 22-member team from the National Fire Agency, along with two tons of specialist search and rescue equipment. [103], The quake was felt as far north as Tauranga[104] and as far south as Invercargill, where the 111 emergency network was rendered out of service. [262] The displacement of large numbers of citizens following a trauma poses as a problem for researchers of natural disasters. [20], GNS Science stated that the earthquake arose from the rupture of an 8 km x 8 km fault running east-northeast at a depth of 1–2 km beneath the southern edge of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary and dipping southwards at an angle of about 65 degrees from the horizontal beneath the Port Hills. Prime Minister John Key confirmed that, "All Civil Defence procedures have now been activated; the Civil Defence bunker at parliament is in operation here in Wellington." This earthquake created some damage which wasn’t as bad as 2011, but the buildings that didn’t fall were very close to, which made the damage larger in the second large quake. [114] ... We will be doing everything we can to work with our New Zealand family, with Prime Minister Key and his emergency services personnel, his military officers, his medical people, his search and rescue teams. [137] The United States sent Urban Search and Rescue California Task Force 2, a 74-member heavy rescue team consisting of firefighters and paramedics from the Los Angeles County Fire Department, doctors, engineers and 26 tons of pre-packaged rescue equipment. [171] The "Rangiora Earthquake Express" provided over 250 tonnes of water, medical supplies, and food, including hot meals, from nearby Rangiora by helicopter and truck. Kuijer, R.G., Marshall, E.M., & Bishop, A.N. [52] On 28 February 2011, the Prime Minister announced that there would be an inquiry into the collapse of buildings that had been signed off as safe after the previous earthquake on 4 September 2010, "to provide answers to people about why so many people lost their lives. [156], Australia's foreign minister Kevin Rudd told Sky News that New Zealand's Foreign Affairs Minister Murray McCully had asked for further help from Australia. [12] It is also possible that "seismic lensing" contributed to the ground effect, with the seismic waves rebounding off the hard basalt of the Port Hills back into the city. The increased liquefaction caused significant ground movement, undermining many foundations and destroying infrastructure, damage which "may be the greatest ever recorded anywhere in a modern city". [120] The New Zealand Red Cross launched an appeal to raise funds to help victims. The main city in the region is Christchurch, with approximately 370,000 people living there prior to the earthquake sequence. Due to the extensive damage of a number of secondary schools, many were forced to share with others, allowing one school to use the ground in the morning and the other in the afternoon. A second team of 70 from Queensland, Queensland Task Force 1, (including three sniffer dogs),was sent the following day on board a RAAF C-17 . [105], At the Tasman Glacier some 200 kilometres (120 miles) from the epicentre, around 30 million tonnes (33 million ST) of ice tumbled off the glacier into Tasman Lake, hitting tour boats with tsunami waves 3.5 metres (11 ft) high. Christchurch's Catholic cathedral damaged after the earthquake, in 2011. Looking at territorial areas only, i.e. [111], Of the 185 victims, 115 people died in the Canterbury Television building alone, while another 18 died in the collapse of PGC House, and eight were killed when masonry fell on Red Bus number 702 in Colombo Street. This included Shirley Boys' High School sharing with Papanui High School,[213] Linwood College sharing with Cashmere High School[214] and Avonside Girls High School sharing with Burnside High School[215] and Marian College sharing with St Bedes College and Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti sharing with Halswell Residential College. [121] A full response management structure was put in place within minutes of the quake, with the Christchurch City Council's alternate Emergency Operations Centre re-established in the City Art Gallery and the regional Canterbury CDEM Group Emergency Coordination Centre (ECC) activated in its post-earthquake operational facility adjacent to the Canterbury Regional Council offices. Recommended management. [216][217] Avonside Girls' High School returned to its original site at the start of 2012. Prime Minister John Key confirmed that, "All Civil Defence procedures have now been activated; the Civil Defence bunker at parliament is in operation here in Wellington. With limited water supplies for firefighting, a total fire ban was introduced, and the fire service brought in water tankers from other centres. The Christchurch earthquake, February 2011. [256][257] This information is important to consider when reacting to future earthquakes and other natural disasters. The earthquake occurred on New Zealand’s South Island, 10km west of Christchurch, at 12.51pm on 22nd February 2011 and lasted just 10 seconds. [64] Search of the building was technically difficult for USAR teams, requiring the deconstruction of 4-tonne stair sets, but the building was cleared with no victims discovered.[65]. Christchurch, the country’s second largest city, suffered widespread damage, particularly in the central city and eastern suburbs. Both COGIC, French Civil Protection and the American USGS requested the activation of the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters on the behalf of MCDEM New Zealand, thus readily providing satellite imagery for aid and rescue services. Christchurch Earthquake Case Study. [176], The UN and the European Union offered assistance. Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti could not return to its central city buildings due to demolitions and it has no long term site. [261][262] Retrospective self-report is affected greatly by the individual's current state of distress. [194] Prince William, made a two-day trip to the country to tour the areas affected by the earthquake,[195] attended on the Queen's behalf and made an address during the service. The last survivor was pulled from the rubble the day after the quake. [209], 163 primary and secondary schools were affected by the earthquake, most of which were closed for three weeks; 90 had full structural clearance and were able to reopen, 24 had reports indicating further assessment and 11 were seriously damaged. [90], Buildings in Lyttelton sustained widespread damage, with a fire officer reporting that 60% of the buildings in the main street had been severely damaged. It is the third time the census has been cancelled in New Zealand; the other occasions occurred in 1931, due to the Great Depression, and in 1941 due to World War II. [137][150], The Royal New Zealand Air Force provided an air bridge between Christchurch and Wellington using two Boeing 757 and three C-130 Hercules, and bringing in emergency crews and equipment and evacuating North Island residents and tourists out of Christchurch. [89], Several areas in and around Christchurch were deemed infeasible to rebuild due to earthquake damage resulting from soil liquefaction and rockslides. The epicentre was closer to Christchurch, and shallower at 5 kilometres (3 mi) underground, whereas the September quake was measured at 10 kilometres (6 mi) deep. (2015). [62] The reinforced concrete building had been constructed in 1963–1964. The court subsequently ruled in favour of Phillipstown and overturned the merger. Site-sharing plans were made to enable affected schools to relocate, while 9 "learning hubs" were established throughout the city to provide resources and support for students needing to work from home. [91] Two people died on local walking tracks after being hit by rockfalls. CDEM were supported by local authorities, New Zealand Police, Fire Service, Defence Force and many other agencies and organisations. [193], A national memorial service was held on 18 March at North Hagley Park, coinciding with a one-off provincial holiday for Canterbury, which required the passing of the Canterbury Earthquake Commemoration Day Act 2011 to legislate. [24], The upwards (positive acceleration) was greater than the downwards, which had a maximum recording of 0.9g; the maximum recorded horizontal acceleration was 1.7g[26] The force of the earthquake was "statistically unlikely" to occur more than once in 1000 years, according to one seismic engineer, with a PGA greater than many modern buildings were designed to withstand. Christchurch Police were supplemented by staff and resources from around the country, along with a 323-strong contingent of Australian Police, who were sworn in as New Zealand Police on their arrival, bringing the total number of officers in the city to 1200. [47] Road surfaces were forced up by liquefaction, and water and sand were spewing out of cracks. After 7 years, the school is set to be moved to Redcliffs Park in 2020. [227] The Crusaders played their entire home schedule away from Christchurch,. [122] On 23 February the Minister of Civil Defence, John Carter declared the situation a state of national emergency,[123] the country's first for a civil defence emergency (the only other one was for the 1951 waterfront dispute). On February 22, 2011, residents of the then-second-largest city in New Zealand – Christchurch, located on the South Island's Canterbury Plains – were hit hard by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake. Statistics New Zealand's main urban area definition for Christchurch includes Kaiapoi, which belongs to Waimakariri District, and Prebbleton, which belongs to Selwyn District. [220][221], Christchurch was set to host five pool matches and two quarter finals of the 2011 Rugby World Cup. The earthquake caused widespread damage across Christchurch, killing 185 people[6][7] in the nation's fifth-deadliest disaster. [49] In the central city, two buses were crushed by falling buildings. Implemented programs can use this knowledge to help survivors focus on the positive effects, possibly working with families to help them get through the disaster with the people they feel closest with. It was centred at a depth of 7 km (4.3 mi), about 5 km (3 mi) south-east of Christchurch, which had previously been devastated by a magnitude 6.2 M W earthquake in February 2011. Rescue efforts continued for over a week, then shifted into recovery mode. [201], On 29 March 2011, Prime Minister John Key and Christchurch Mayor Bob Parker announced the creation of the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority (CERA) to manage the earthquake recovery, co-operating with the government, local councils and residents, under chief executive John Ombler. It was the middle of a working day and many people were at school or work, having lunch or running errands. [20] By comparison, the 2010 quake—in which damage was predominantly to pre-1970s buildings—exerted 65% of the design loading on buildings. According to a study conducted by catalyst, the way in which the underlying contents of the earth, move due to the impact of the earthquake is due to the city sitting on a jelly like base. The substantial difficulties that had to be overcome to provide care for injured people after the earthquake were: loss of electricity, loss of communication systems, scarcity of prehospital care, difficulties in registration and tracking of patients, frightened patients, management of the people helping, and management of the media . It also covers land damage within 8 metres of a home; this coverage is uncapped. [223] Some matches needed to be rescheduled. [238], In October 2008, the population of the Christchurch main urban area, as defined by Statistics New Zealand, had for the first time exceeded the Wellington equivalent (at 386,100 versus 386,000), which made Christchurch the second largest city in New Zealand (after Auckland). Many of the people trapped in that building were Japanese and other foreign English language students. A state of local emergency was initially declared by the Mayor of Christchurch, which was superseded when the government declared a state of national emergency, which stayed in force until 30 April 2011. In September 2010 and again in February 2011, the city of Christchurch was rocked by earthquakes of magnitude 7.1 and 6.3 respectively. There is evidence that suggests that the mental health effects of natural disasters can be debilitating and detrimental to the community affected.[256][257][258][259][260][261][262]. [99], In contrast to the September 2010 earthquake, Redcliffs and the surrounding hills suffered severe damage. [196] New Zealand's governor-general, Sir Anand Satyanand, attended, along with John Key, Bob Parker, and a number of local and international dignitaries. [112] Between 6,600 and 6,800 people were treated for minor injuries,[113] and Christchurch Hospital alone treated 220 major trauma cases connected to the quake. In his formal statement, he commented that the loss of life was "dreadful" and the "thoughts and prayers of the British people were with them". Government expressed its concern over the stalemate and appointed an independent negotiator and in September 2017, the Christchurch Diocesan Synod announced that ChristChurch Cathedral will be reinstated[67] after promises of extra grants and loans from local and central government. Lessons from the Christchurch earthquakes 2 Abstract This research examined changes in preparedness and judgments of the risk of earthquakes after the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquakes in three cities: Christchurch (Canterbury), Wellington and Palmerston North. [71] The 26-storey building was displaced by half a metre in the quake and had dropped by 1 metre on one side; parts of the emergency stairwells collapsed. "[180][181], David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, issued a statement and sent SMS text messages to Commonwealth prime ministers. Three RNZAF Beechcraft Super King Air aircraft were also used to evacuate people from Christchurch. "[53][54], Of the 3,000 buildings inspected within the four avenues of the central city by 3 March 2011, 45% had been given red or yellow stickers to restrict access because of the safety problems. 181 confirmed fatalities were recorded as a direct result of the earthquake. Canterbury earthquake of 4 September 2010, List of tallest buildings in Christchurch, St Paul's-Trinity-Pacific Presbyterian Church, International Charter on Space and Major Disasters, Urban Search and Rescue California Task Force 2, Canterbury Earthquake Commemoration Day Act 2011, The Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission, UC CEISMIC Canterbury Earthquakes Digital Archive, List of disasters in New Zealand by death toll, "M 6.2 Christchurch Tue, Feb 22 2011: Technical", "M 6.2 Christchurch Tue, Feb 22 2011: Story", "Ice breaks off glacier after Christchurch quake", "List of deceased – Christchurch earthquake", "M 6.2 Christchurch Tue, Feb 22 2011: Details", "M 6.1 – South Island of New Zealand: Regional information", "Factors combined to intensify Chch quake", "New Zealand hit by strong quake, 65 dead", "Deadly quake could be sign of more to come", "Christchurch earthquake: Rockfall threat still strong, say experts", "Christchurch quake press conference Monday morning", "The Christchurch Feb 22nd Earthquake: A Personal Report", "New Zealand quake raises questions about L.A. buildings", "Second Christchurch fault much better behaved", "Christchurch earthquake: Wrecker's tip for leaning tower", "Christchurch earthquake: Radar points to rupturing of single fault", "Port Hills half a metre taller after Christchurch earthquake", "22 February 2011 – Christchurch badly damaged by magnitude 6.3 earthquake", "Christchurch earthquake: Deadly tremors rebounded on city", "New Zealand Earthquake Report – Apr 16 2011 at 5:49 pm (NZST)", "Damage assessed after 'violent' 5.3 aftershock hits Christchurch", "New Zealand Earthquake Report – Jun 13 2011 at 1:01 pm (NZST)", "Magnitude 6.0, Mon Jun 13 2011 2:20 PM: Technical", "Magnitude 6.0, Mon Jun 13 2011 2:20 PM: Details", "Workmen unscathed as Timeball Station collapses", "Canterbury Earthquake: Fire Service struggling to cope with rescue effort", "Canterbury Earthquake: Main roads to Christchurch open", "Christchurch quake: 'Dead bodies lying around, "New Zealand earthquake: 65 dead in Christchurch", "Christchurch quake: 'Buildings just piled on top of people, "How will we rebuild our shattered city? [136] It was equipped to provide triage, emergency care, maternity, dental care, isolation tents for gastroenteritis, and to provide primary care since most general practices in the area were unable to open. NSW Task Force 1, a team of 72 urban search and rescue specialists from New South Wales, Australia was sent to Christchurch on two RAAF C-130J Hercules, arriving 12 hours after the quake. [237], In the year to June 2011, the population of Christchurch had fallen by 8,900 people or 2.4% of its population, with a historic annual population growth of 1%. [256][257][260] It is predicted that the people who are displaced experience the worst of the damage, and therefore the reported levels of PTSD and depression are often lower than they would have been had the displaced citizens been available to collect data from. [183] Twenty Chinese students were reported missing following the quake. [48] A number of cars were crushed by falling debris. [59] A government report later found that the building's construction was faulty and should not have been approved. [152] The Royal Australian Air Force also assisted with air lifts. Two men celebrate after being pulled out of a destroyed building in Christchurch, New Zealand, 24 hours after a devastating earthquake. [207] All courses expected to resume by 28 March, with plans for the April break to be shortened by two weeks to make up for lost time. [260][261][262] Self-report can introduce bias to results, leading to skewed data. [56], The six-storey Canterbury Television (CTV) building collapsed in the earthquake, leaving only its lift shaft standing, which caught fire. Each individual can react differently to traumatic events, and more research needs to be done to learn how to predict vulnerability and access the effects to find solutions that work best. Case study from iim ahmedabad game of thrones book review essay! [147] Over 1400 Army, Navy and Air Force personnel were involved,[148] and Territorials (Army Reserve) were called up. [11][12] According to GNS Science seismologists, the energy released in Christchurch was equivalent to a magnitude 6.7 earthquake. However, authority control was not in place until quite some time after the earthquake and Christchurch didn’t fully reopen until over 2 years after the initial earthquake. (2015). Christchurch citizens had direct [78] St Elmo Courts has been damaged in the September 2010 earthquake and the owner intended to repair the building, but further damage caused by the February 2011 event resulted in a decision to demolish, which was done the following month. More than 361 aftershocks occurred in the first week following the 6.3-magnitude earthquake. The death … The Department of Building and Housing also released a plan for the construction of 500 modular homes. Recommended Management Plan. The cliff behind Redcliffs School collapsed onto the houses below. The New Zealand Fire Service coordinated search and rescue, with support from the Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) teams from New Zealand, Australia, United Kingdom, United States, Japan, Taiwan, China and Singapore, totalling 150 personnel from New Zealand and 429 from overseas. [93][94], Landslides occurred in Sumner, crushing buildings. The earthquake generated a significant series of its own aftershocks. [222], New Zealand Cricket's offices were damaged by the earthquake. Once the composite Christchurch Coordination Centre was established on 23 February the CDEM Group Controllers and ECC personnel relocated to the City Art Gallery to supplement the management personnel available to the National Controller. [106], KiwiRail reported that the TranzAlpine service was terminating at Greymouth and the TranzCoastal terminating at Picton. More than 4,500 vehicles were stranded in the city centre during the recovery period. 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