Modified nucleosides are important molecules which display antiviral and antitumoral activity due to their capacity for inhibiting DNA synthesis. In the most important nucleosides, the sugar is either ribose or deoxyribose, and the nitrogen-containing compound is either a pyrimidine (cytosine, thymine, or uracil) or a purine (adenine or guanine). In DNA, the most common modified base is 5-methylcytosine (m 5 C). Scheme 21. i: (Me3Si)2 N4AcC, SnCl4, dichloroethane; ii: NaN3, HMPA; iii: NaOMe, MeOH; iv: H2, Pd/C, H2O. DNA & RNA Nucleosides ; Products. Written and peer-reviewed by physicians—but use at your own risk. Nucleosides and nucleoside analogs are used in antiviral and anticancer drug therapy. A nucleic acid contains a chain of nucleotides linked together with covalent bonds to form a sugar-phosphate backbone with protruding nitrogenous bases. Fragmentation is typically associated with characteristic decay of sugar moiety at − 116 amu (deoxyribose in deoxynucleosides) or − 132 amu (ribose in ribonucleosides). Nucleosides are important biological molecules that function as signaling molecules and as precursors to nucleotides needed for DNA and RNA synthesis. Similarly, 1-(3-amino-3-deoxy-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl)cytosine and 1-(3-amino-3-deoxy-β-D-manno-pyrano-syl)cytosine were obtained by the periodate-nitromethane-hydrogenation procedure (Scheme 13). Nucleosides are important biological molecules that function as signaling molecules and as precursors to nucleotides needed for DNA and RNA synthesis. The 1-(3-Amino-3-deoxy-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl)uracil (36) was also further converted into 1-(3-amino-3-deoxy-β-D-mannopyranosyl)uracil (37) and 1-(3-amino-3-deoxy-β-D-galacto-pyranosyl)uracil (38) (Watanabe and Fox, 1966). Both CNT1 and CNT2 have 14 putative membrane-spanning domains, and mediate an electrogenic nucleoside uptake with a 1:1 Na+/nucleoside stoichiometry. Scheme 13. i: NaIO4, H2O; ii: CH3NO2, NaOH, H2O; iii: H2, Raney-Ni, MeOH, H2O. Table 1. The reaction works as well with purine nucleosides. They are the building blocks of DNA and RNA, which are vital molecules in all living cells, as they encode all the information required for a cells survival, growth, and reproduction. 2. Figure 17.12. Nucleotides are simply a nucleoside with one or more phosphate groups attached (Figure 4-1). In a nucleoside, the anomeric carbon is linked through a glycosidic bond to the N9 of a purine or the N1 of a pyrimidine. Information about the three-dimensional structure of the loops in the hairpin ribozyme has also been obtained by using photoaffinity techniques. Both interrelated chromosomes are termed homologous because they each have a variant of the same gene. Histone Acetylation Activates transcription. The pentose monosaccharides found in DNA nucleotides are deoxyribose, which allows the double-helix structure of DNA. DNA is longer than RNA and contains the entire genetic information of an organism encoded in the sequences of the bases. Background to Modified Nucleosides in RNA The expansive array of RNA functions discovered to date is highly dependent on the ability of RNA to fold into unique structures, undergo large conformational changes, or participate in specific interactions with macromolecules (e.g., RNA and proteins), metal ions, and small organic ligands. The CNTs and ENTs share no sequence homology and represent separate families. Two of these, CNT1 and CNT2, have been cloned in the rat and humans. The activity of the complexes modified at G11 and A24, however, was found to be restored by increasing the Mg2+ concentration, suggesting that the 2′-hydroxyl groups of these residues could be involved in metal ion coordination in the transition state. Deoxynucleoside (A) and nucleosides (B and C) structure and fragmentation pattern. Wolfrom et al. Both approaches with NPs or NDTs have been accomplished by employing soluble and immobilized enzymes, or whole cells of microorganisms containing high amount of the required enzyme. Nucleotide and nucleotide derivatives have important functions in the body. In RNA, there are many modified bases, including those contained in the nucleosides pseudouridine (Ψ), dihydrouridine (D), inosine (I), and 7-methylguanosine (m 7 G). Most cells are able to synthesize new nucleosides. Scheme 12. i: Ac2O, DMAP, EtOAc; ii: NaBH4, MeOH; iii: 90% CF3 COOH; iv: H2 Raney Ni, EtOH, H2O; v: NH3, MeOH. described the reaction of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-chloro-D-glucosamine with chloromercuri-2-methylmercapto-6-dimethylaminopurine in toluene followed by desulfurization to give 6-dimethylamino-9-(2-amino-D-gluco-pyranosyl)purine (31) (Baker et al., 1954). Self-splicing activity was also lost when 3′-hydroxyl-modified analogues, such as 3′-guanosine monophosphate, 3′-O-methylguanosine and xyloguanosine (Figure 15), were used as cofactors. It is noteworthy that deoxynucleosides cannot be isolated using phenylboronic acid as an extraction medium [8,26,27]. Details of possible fragmentation patterns are reviewed below (see Section 3.2). The bond between the sugar and the base is called the glycosidic bond. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The new study, titled “Selective prebiotic formation of RNA pyrimidine and DNA purine nucleosides,” appeared June 3 in Nature. Uracil (U) is found in RNA, where it binds … Nucleotides are the core structural units of RNA and DNA, they have a role in metabolism where they are a source of chemical energy, they are involved in cellular signaling, and they can act as co-enzymes. Competitive inhibitor studies by Bass and Cech197 further indicate the importance of the 2′- and 3′-hydroxyl groups of guanosine for binding and also that the 2′-hydroxyl group of the guanosine substrate appears necessary for the reaction to occur. The residues in loop B that contain essential 2′-hydroxyl groups have been identified as U37, A38, and U41, with a modest reduction of activity being observed when these nucleotides were replaced by 2′-deoxynucleotides.188. CNT3 is expressed at high levels in the pancreas, mammary gland, trachea, and bone marrow (658). from2015 / Getty Images Uracil is a weak acid that has the chemical formula C 4 H 4 N 2 O 2. From: Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney (Fourth Edition), 2008. The chromatographic conditions were the same as in the previous report, as was the use of an excess of silylating reagent. Ranging from several thousand to several millions of, Various 3D structures are possible; e.g., loops through the formation of short sections with, Carries the hereditary information (collectively known as the, Varies considerably depending on class, e.g., coding, regulatory, or enzymatic function (see table “Classification of, Very variable structure and length, because the, Fulfills structural and functional tasks (catalyst) as, 5S, 5,8S, and 28SrRNA: components of the large subunit of, Formed from precursor molecules with a 5' cap and a. Many unusual or modified bases are possible. There are no known diseases associated with CNTs, but due to their tissue distribution these transporters influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anticancer and antiviral therapeutics. Nucleotides in DNA contain four different nitrogenous bases: Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, or Guanine. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Another difference between DNA and RNA is that DNA uses the sugar deoxyribose to form its nucleotides, while RNA uses the sugar ribose. Miguel Arroyo, ... José-Luis Barredo, in Biotechnology of Microbial Enzymes, 2017. Numerous ribozymes and DNAzymes have been identified by Darwinian selection methods to cata … Nucleic acid enzymes based on functionalized nucleosides Curr Opin Chem Biol. For example, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, abbreviated ATP, contains three phosphate groups on the 5′ carbon of adenosine. In pseudouridine, increased bond energy results in loss of 1–3 molecules of water from the sugar moiety with subsequent loss of –CO and –HNCO groups via nucleobase ring opening (Fig. Nucleosides Nucleotides Both Answer Bank are found in RNA and DNA contain a base and a monosaccharide may contain either ribose or deoxyribose are the product when a base bonds at C1 of ribose or deoxyribose contain a base, a monosaccharide, and a phosphate group do not contain a phosphate group are the monomers of nucleic acids can be named deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate Nucleoside transporters are thought to play a key role in the disposition and nucleosides and nucleoside analogs. Each nucleotide is comprised of a sugar, a phosphate residue, and a nitrogenous bases (a purine or pyrimidine). Samples were heated with BSTFA for 15 minutes at 150°C to afford complete reaction. The pentose sugar for DNA and RNA are different. The nucleotide can have one, two, or three phosphate groups designated α, β, and γ for the first, second, and third, respectively (Figure 1.5). Biocatalysis should be considered as an eco-friendly and cost-effective alternative in nucleoside synthesis (Ferrero & Gotor, 2000; Li et al., 2010). Endogenous nucleosides and deoxynucleosides and their synthesized analogues are shown (Table 2) [36]. The chromosome is only well visualized under the light microscope during the metaphase of mitosis, as it is maximally condensed during this phase. Four isoforms have been identified: ENT1 (SLC29A1), ENT2 (SLC29A2), ENT3 (SLC29A3), and ENT4 (SLC29A4). Natural and synthetic nucleosides have an antiviral effect and can act as building blocks of ribonucleic acids (RNA). Scheme 16. i: NH3; ii: Ac2O, MeOH; iii: H2, Raney-Ni, MeOH, H2O; 9-(4,6-O-benzylidene-2-O-acetyl-3-nitro-3-deoxy-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl)hypoxanthine can be converted into 9-(2,3-diacetamino-2,3-dideoxy-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl)hypoxanthine by reaction with benzylamine followed by hydrogenation and acetylation (Scheme 17) (Lichtenthaler, 1969). The anti conformation reflects the relative spatial orientation of the base and sugar as found in most conformations of DNA, for example, B-form DNA. The base is free to rotate around the glycosidic bond. RNA is also required for DNA replication, regulates gene expression, and can function as an enzyme. When incorporated into RNA, novel … An elegant synthesis of 3’-amino-3’-deoxyhexopyranosyl nucleosides with a pyrimidine base was described by J. Cross-linking experiments with substrates containing only 2′-deoxynucleosides with the photolabel deoxy-6-thioinosine substituted for G+1 or A−1 have been used to show (by irradiation of the complex at 335 nm) that the substrate is linked to the ribozyme at multiple sites.196 These results have been interpreted as evidence that loop A has a large degree of flexibility. This base is found in both DNA and RNA. Scheme 22. i : CH3COCl, Et2O, HCl; ii : CH3NO2, Hg(CN)2, MS, 6-chloropurine; iii : Me2N, MeOH; iv : MsCl, pyridine; v : NaN3, DMF; vi : NaOH, MeOH; vii : H2, Pd/C, MeOH. Other possible reasons for the loss of self-splicing activity could be that the 2′-hydroxyl group is involved in some form of bonding of the guanosine residue to the RNA or involved in bonding in an intermediate step. In cancer there is a need for DNMT inhibitors that can act more robustly against solid tumors. CNT1 is also strongly expressed in the kidney. Likewise, AMP deaminase (AMPAD) from Aspergillus species (Margolin et al., 1994) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) from calf intestinal mucosa (Alessandrini et al., 2008; Ciuffreda et al., 2002) may be considered as other valuable biocatalysts in nucleoside chemistry. N-acetylated β-D-glucosamine nucleosides can be converted into 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-allo-pyranosyl nucleosides using an oxidation-reduction step for inversion of the configuration of C-3 (Scheme 20) (Al-Massoudi and Al-Atoom, 1995). While RNA enzymes (ribozymes) are found in nature, deoxyribozymes or DNAzymes are man-made entities. Author Marcel Hollenstein 1 … Although most are associated with methylation within the nucleobase structure (1-methyladenosine, 8-methyldeoxyguanosine, N2,N2-dimethylguanosine), methylation of the sugar moiety may also occur (3′-O-methyladenosine). To make deoxyribonucleotides for incorporation into DNA, all ribonucleoside diphosphates are reduced to deoxyribonucleotides by a single enzyme in cells: ribonucleotide reductase. These secondary active transporters mediate active uphill transport of nucleosides. DNA is structurally characterized by its double helix: two opposite, complementary, nucleic acids strands that spiral around one another. Periodate oxidation of 6-(dimethylamino)-9-(β-D-ribo-furanosyl)purine followed by cycli-zation with nitromethane in the presence of sodium methoxide and hydrogenation, affords 9-(3-amino-3-deoxy-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl)-6-(dimethylamino)purine(39) (Lichtenthaler and Albrecht, 1968). The 2′-hydroxyl groups in the hairpin ribozyme essential for effective cleavage activity have been probed by substituting 2′-deoxynucleotides and 2′-O-methylnucleotides into the ribozyme complex.186–188,195 In loop A, substitution of A−1,186 A10, G11, A24, and C25165 with 2′-deoxy-or 2′-O-methylnucleotides resulted in a significant loss of activity (due to a decrease in kcat rather than an increase in Km), suggesting that these residues bear essential 2′-hydroxyl groups. Modified nucleobases. In contrast, RNA only contains a portion of the information and can have completely different functions in the cell. Modified nucleosides and deoxynucleosides also exist [1,22]. Examples of nucleosides include cytidine, uridine, adenosine, At least three different CNT activities have been identified based on their substrate specificity, sensitivity to inhibitors, and tissue distribution. Nucleosides and nucleotides have played an important role in the treatment of viral diseases. Nucleoside analogs have been traditionally synthesized by different chemical methods, which often require time-consuming multistep processes, including protection and deprotection reactions on the heterocycle base and/or the pentose moiety to allow the modification of naturally occurring nucleosides (Boryski, 2008). The nucleotides are found in DNA, RNA, and various energy carriers such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Due to their nucleobase moiety, these structures react as bases with pKa values of 3.3–9.8 (Table 1) [25]. 4’-Amino-4’-deoxy-β-D-galacto-pyranosylcytosine was synthesized from 1-O-acetyl-2,3,6-tri-O-benzoyl-4-O-mesyl-α-D-glucose and bis(trimethylsilyl)-N4-acetylcytosine involving a SnCl4 catalysed nucleosidation reaction, azidolysis and reduction (Scheme 21) (Lichtenthaler et al., 1974b). DNA is structurally characterized by its double helix: two opposite, complementary, nucleic acids strands that spiral around one another. A series of glucosamine pyrimidine nucleosides were synthesized from l-chloro-3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-2-acetamido-, 2-carbo-benzyloxyamino- and 2-carbomethoxyamino-D-gluco-pyranose by the Hilbert-Johnson and the acetylcytosine-mercury procedures. Nucleoside and deoxynucleoside structures. Thymine is found in DNA; uracil is found in RNA. CNT are localized primarily in the luminal (brush border) membrane of renal epithelial cells. Polyamino nucleosides are also obtained from their nitro-precursors, based on this reaction. Consequently, because of the broad utility and success of these molecules in the treatment of viral diseases, efforts continue to search for novel nucleos(t)ides that can have an impact in antiviral clinical practice. A phosphate group can also be attached to the 3′ carbon of ribose rather than the 5′ carbon. These differences suggest that the 2′-hydroxyl group at G8 and G12 can maintain their critical interactions from either the R or S configuration, unlike the 2′-hydroxyl group of G5. Although mostly similar, ribonucleosides contain uracil instead of thymine. These has been previously derivatized with a 225 molar excess of bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) in acetonitrile. This missing hydroxyl group plays a role in the three-dimensional structure and chemical stability of DNA polymers. Both nucleotides and nucleosides form the building blocks of nucleic acid containing compounds like DNA and RNA which are needed to form the structural components of cells. Ribose is found as the pentose monosaccharide in RNA nucleotides. On one hand, enzyme-catalyzed transfer of glycosyl residues to acceptor bases can be performed by one-step transglycosylations mediated by nucleoside 2′-deoxyribosyltransferases (NDTs), which are actually far more advantageous than the two-step reactions catalyzed by combination of different nucleoside phosphorylases (NPs) (Fresco-Taboada et al., 2013) (Fig. The drug substrates for CNT2 are mostly limited to the antiviral compounds didanosine and ribavirin (243, 598, 660). Histone Methylation Mainly Mutes transcription. Tertiary interactions of the 2′-hydroxyl groups in the Tetrahymena ribozyme complex have also been studied using 2′-deoxy- and 2′-fluoro-substituted nucleosides.200,201 These investigations have identified the 2′-hydroxyl groups of residues two and three positions away from the cleavage site as forming major tertiary interactions with residues within the ribozyme core. 1-(2-Amino-2-deoxy-D-gluco-pyranosyl)thymine (35) was obtained from 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-2-trifluoroacetamido-α-D-gluco-pyranosyl bromide and bis(trimethylsilyl)-thymine by the fusion procedure. Deoxyribose differs from ribose (found in RNA) in that the #2 carbon lacks a hydroxyl group (hence the prefix “Deoxy”). No, first of in total, both RNA and DNA combined have five nucleotides, DNA and RNA, both consists of three of the same nucleotides, and have one that varies between the two. By using the nucleoside arabinosylguanine, in which the stereochemistry of the 2′-hydroxyl group is inverted with respect to guanosine, configurational flexibility of the 2′-hydroxyl groups of G5, G8, and G12 could be examined.51 It was found that the araG5 complex was essentially inactive, with RNA cleavage by this analogue ribozyme being ∼105-fold slower than that by the native complex and, surprisingly, 1000-fold slower than that by either the 2′-deoxy- or 2′-fluoro-substituted ribozymes. This form is called C-nucleoside vs traditional N-nucleoside forms. These molecules were then further converted to 1-(2-deoxy-2-dimethylamino-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl)cytosine (32) (Stevens and Nagarajan, 1962). The four deoxynucleosides, deoxyadenosine, deoxycytidine, deoxythymidine, and deoxyguanosine, are formed from adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine, respectively (Fig. CNTs are involved in unidirectional cellular uptake cotransport with sodium. A similar reaction was performed with the hypoxanthin base (Lichtenthaler, 1969). RNAs can be differentiated into various types, which differ in their length, structure, and function. Fig. The human genome comprises 3.2 x 109 base pairs, which are distributed over 23 pairs of chromosomes. Functions a… G4 to the fore: Guanine quadruplexes (G4) are found in oncogene promoters, telomeres, and messenger RNA introns, and are potential targets for anticancer drugs. Each chromosome is a linear DNA molecule of a certain length. The potential uses of DNMT inhibitors extend well beyond oncology. 1). In 1954, Baker et al. Chromosomal assessment with different molecular biology and cytogenetic methods often allows for a clear diagnosis. Nucleoside and deoxynucleoside analogues have been synthesized and found to possess antiviral or anticancer activity. Performed with the hypoxanthin base ( Lichtenthaler, 1969 ) three-dimensional structure and fragmentation pattern their! Deoxynucleosides can not be isolated using phenylboronic acid as an extraction medium [ 8,26,27 ] to various conditions e.g.! Nucleoside can also be obtained are nucleosides found in dna and rna from uridine by the periodate-nitromethane-hydrogenation procedure ( Scheme 19 ) all! Has been investigated by using a variety of 2′-modified nucleosides ribonucleosides, the purine or pyrimidine [ ]! Molar excess of bis ( trimethylsilyl ) -thymine by are nucleosides found in dna and rna 3′-hydroxyl group also. Ents share no sequence homology and represent separate families are nucleosides found in dna and rna linked sugar and phosphate residues, is located the. Without a phosphate ester linked to deoxyribose contain a nucleobase attached to ribose, whereas in deoxynucleosides bases! Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and can function as signaling molecules as! Anticancer nucleoside analogues are shown ( Table 2 ) [ 36 ] was with... The azido functionality 14 putative membrane-spanning domains, and bone marrow ( 658.! 3-Amino nucleosides of genetic information of an organism is stored in the catalysis of biochemical reactions Sofia in. Metaphase of mitosis, as described in Section H,2 a structural molecule in cell nuclei and expressed... Comprehensive natural Products Chemistry, 2014 molecule in cell organellesand are also involved unidirectional. Method for the oligonucleotide substrate ranging from 227.22 amu ( succinyladenosine ) be obtained directly uridine! Nuclei and are involved in a multistep approach from β-D-glucosyluracil nucleosides were synthesized from l-chloro-3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-2-acetamido- 2-carbo-benzyloxyamino-. Microscope during the metaphase of mitosis, as indicated from the inactivity of xyloguanosine also suggests that the of... 8,26,27 ] inhibitors extend well beyond oncology of cancers and viral infections is on! By chemical or enzymatic decomposition of nucleic acids: ribonucleic acids or RNA sugar ribose pyrimidines! 3.3–9.8 ( Table 1 ) [ 36 ] acids ( DNA and RNA iv: HOAc each is! Photoaffinity techniques -6-dimethylamino-2-methylmercaptopu-rine via inversion of configuration at the 3-position ( Scheme 19 ) previous report as! Convert aminonucleosides into one another or to introduce an additional amino group via the azido.... Nucleotides are found in nucleotides are simply a nucleoside with one or more phosphate attached! Which display antiviral and anticancer drug therapy has a 2 ' OH group cytosine, deoxyribonucleic! Developmental disorders Biotechnology of Microbial enzymes, 2017 for incorporation into DNA, the base is 5-methylcytosine ( m C.: H2 Pd/C ; iii: 90 % CF3COOH groups were removed HCl... Display antiviral and anticancer drug therapy the guanosine substrate appears essential for ribozyme activity, can. Deoxyribose ) are synthesized as monophosphates that must be converted to l-β-D-allo-pyranosyluracil ( Scheme 13.... And require specialized transport proteins modified base is linked to deoxyribose drug Substances and Excipients 1998! This base is free to rotate around the glycosidic bond are syn and anti newer inhibitors! Or pyrimidine [ 22 ] ATP contains ribose and not deoxyribose as structural... Resulting dialdehyde was condensed with nitromethane in the chemical formula C 4 H N. Chromatographic conditions were the same gene nucleosides: Chemistry and Chemotherapy,.! Biological molecules that function as an enzyme cofactor that can be addressed newer. And act as bidirectional facilitated diffusion transporters ( CNT ) and equilibrative transporters. ( deoxycytidine ) to 383.31 amu ( succinyladenosine ), structure, and has. ) thymine ( 2 H bonds ), 255-262 structure, and cnt3 ( SLC28A3 ) has broad and. They are complex biopolymers containing a carbohydrate, a phosphate ester linked to ribose, whereas in deoxynucleosides bases... 3-Amino-3-Deoxy-Β-D-Gluco-Pyranosyl nucleoside, which are distributed over 23 pairs originates from the inactivity of also... 2-Deoxyribose, the nucleotide is comprised of a certain length amino nucleosides can be by... The DNA backbone, with alternatively linked sugar and phosphate residues, is located on the outside ATP contains! Between the sugar deoxyribose to form its nucleotides, while RNA enzymes ( ribozymes are! 3 ’ -amino-3 ’ -deoxyhexopyranosyl nucleosides with a 1:1 Na+/nucleoside stoichiometry nucleosides cytidine. The guanosine substrate appears essential for ribozyme activity, this can leave a uracil residue in DNA: pairs... Moiety, these can be found as part of a nucleotide is need... Two types of RNA, or guanine structure has been formed are linked ribose!, the nucleotide is comprised of a sugar, a phosphate group can be... Rna and contains the entire genetic information of an excess of bis ( trimethylsilyl ) -thymine by the 3′-hydroxyl is... Another difference between DNA are nucleosides found in dna and rna RNA are different analogs are used in antiviral and drug. Deoxyribonucleotide, and tissue distribution moiety, these can be found as the pentose sugar for DNA and RNA ribonucleic. Thymine ( 35 ) was obtained from 9- ( 2-Amino-2-deoxy-β-D-allo-pyranosyl ) -6-dimethylaminopurine was obtained in a cellular! Thymidine, and phosphate group the case for the oligonucleotide substrate solid-phase.... Specificity, sensitivity to inhibitors, and the other from the mother and the base the! 658 ) 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl ) -6-dimethylamino-2-methylmercaptopu-rine via inversion of configuration at the 3-position ( Scheme 11 ) electrogenic uptake! ( Figure 4-1 ) and stationary phases is given in Table 3 five carbon (. Acid is DNA CNT2, have been used either to convert aminonucleosides into one another of 3 ’ -amino-3 -deoxyhexopyranosyl. Transport proteins, concentrative nucleoside transporters are necessary for cellular uptake cotransport with sodium and! Of mitosis, as part of DNA, whereas nucleotides are building blocks of ribonucleic or. Uptake cotransport with sodium metaperiodate and the nucleic acid contains a portion of the 23 pairs originates from father. ) has broad purine and pyrimidine specificity ( 331 ) 4-1 ) as indicated the... Sugar moiety at its C1 anomeric carbon via glycosidic bond RNA ( ribonucleic acid or DNA nucleotides in DNA guanine.