4,6 In this paper, we argue that involving the learner in feedback pro- Two interrelated strategies, however, appear to produce the best results: Distributed practice (an example of the spacing effect) and interleaving. Digital portfolio, learning reflection journal ‘Learner Perseverance’ that can be used as a better design goal for an xMOOC developed for TPD. Cognitive Load Theory includes compound and simple effects that can be used to improve the quality of teaching and hence learning. Both approaches can increase learner motivation and effort by presenting learners with entertaining opportunities for practice and by leveraging peers as commitment devices. This information, after all, is often labelled “neg-ative feedback” by the learner and the wider academic community. Practice can have numerous effects on the learner: Relatively permanent effects that persist across many days, even years Temporary effects that vanish with time or a change in conditions (positive or negative) Simultaneous temporary and relatively permanent effects Distributed practice is perhaps best explained by referring to its alternative – massed practice. Nine decisions of the pre-impact set can be shifted to the learner: posture (how to posture for the task), location (where to Five higher order compound effects alter the characteristics of other simple cognitive load effects. However, feedback can also have negative effects; in Kluger and DeNisi’s(1996) meta-analysis, approxi-mately one-third of the effect sizes were negative. Once seen as flexible on the basis of personal choice and mainly consisting of conferences and lecture style meetings, it is now much more likely to be specified, mandatory and linked to specific regulatory or quality improvement activities. Massed practice can be … the learner can improve should be buffered or offset by “good news” is even more damaging. Coaches are primarily interested in employing those practice conditions which maximize the development of relatively permanent improvements in skill, that is, those that generate positive learning effects. If the learner can discuss or write down some of their self-assessments, the verbalisation and clarification of ideas that comes from interaction with others in oral or written form assists learners to remember their learning and their successful learning strategies. • Modeling also supports improvements in learner behavioral outcomes (Domitrovich, Gest, Jones, Gill, & DeRousie, 2010; Filcheck, McNeil, Greco, & Bernard, 2004). This study aims to assess the impact of this approach on knowledge acquisition and learner attitudes in postgraduate medical education. The Effect of Learning Styles on Academic Achievement in Different Forms of Teaching Ivana Cimermanová University of Presov, Slovakia, [email protected] In recent years, researchers have shown an increased interest in learner styles as one of the key factors influencing learning generally. Skills . Nonverbal clients stimulate questions regarding the conscious use of self as well as more reflective thinking about cause-and-effect relationships. Both applied and empirical literature is reviewed with the purpose of stimulating research on this strategy. The Effect of Context Clues on EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension SEYED JALAL ABDOLMANAFI ROKNI 1, HAMID REZA NIKNAQSH 2 ABSTRACT There are a number of factors that influence the way a learner comprehends a reading passage. However, the effect of portfolios on promoting learner autonomy in practice remains unparalleled. The Effect of Teacher-Centeredness Method vs. Learner-Centeredness Method on Reading Comprehension among Iranian EFL Learners Maryam Lak*, Hassan Soleimani, Farid Parvaneh Department of Linguistics and Foreign Languages, Payame Noor University, Qom, Iran *Email: [email protected] Received for publication: 03 November 2016. Saud, Haris and Chen, Ruth (2018) "The Effect of Competency-Based Education on Medical and Nursing Students' Academic Performance, Technical Skill Development, and Overall Satisfaction and Preparedness for Future Practice: An Integrative Literature Review," International Journal of Health Sciences Education, 5(1). 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